In the "knowledge society", education is a strategic issue. What is your diagnosis on the French situation
He must leave a fact: our country has an unemployment rate of abnormally high youth, 22.8, then the average European is located at 16.5, that of the OECD to 13.3. This explains that our youth has a level of pessimism is atypical in the modern world. It is a human, social and economic mess. This must lead us to reflect together on our educational system. Today, 40 of a generation out of the school with a diploma below the tray (10 without a diploma). Our system does not sufficiently values the manual skill; It gives too important to the deductive intelligence from inductive intelligence, if that orientation towards professional and technological streams is not considered a focus of excellence. He must find a way to improve and enhance these channels and prove that he has no tracks that are less good than others. A very large number of jobs correspond to qualities which would be placed in these sectors and for which it is obliged to seek labour abroad.
How can business contribute to changing the situation
They are already very involved in the training centres for apprentices (CFA). They can assist in developing the training, rewarding craft, where there are many trades for the future. They also provide teachers or professors there assistants where desired. Preference should be given, the more upstream, a better interpenetration between corporate and educational environments.
Why our country has so many difficulties to do so
This is due in part to his sociological evolution. Post-war, there was virtually in every French family or in its immediate environment a contractor individual farmer, small trader, artisan. Each child could see his eyes that "there is no run job", as my grandmother. Today, it is no longer the case. It must explain to the school, in the media, the interest of the life of the contractor, the importance of the undertaking as essential the creation of wealth and social links.
Should review the manner in which are written the economy at the College and high school programs
It is a topic that should actually be considered. Should be given a central place to the microeconomic production and Exchange approaches so that everyone understands well the mechanisms of wealth creation; and then make sure the image of the company corresponds to what it is today and not what it could be in the 19th century!
The importance of the unemployment led many young people to pursue their studies rather than embark on the market work. Should we encourage this race to graduation
What matters is the will of the students. If they want to continue their studies, it should be are encouraged, but focusing well. The real problem, it is when the extension of studies does not lead to the acquisition of a degree. We have a serious problem at the University. Each year, nearly 100,000 young exiting without another degree tray, and close to other 100,000 with a diploma in specialties not corresponding to qualifications recognised by the labour market. It is a huge trauma for young people, for their parents, and a waste for them and for the entire country.
To improve the situation, should be a selection at the entrance to universities
The idea that there is any guidance at the entrance to the University seems actually very questionable. Some defend on behalf of equality of opportunity, while on the contrary, this lack of orientation contributes to widen inequalities. A young man who enters the University must have the certainty that this investment would serve as something. Therefore, that the institutions can engage with college graduates, to guide their talents and professional opportunities. This should be the freedom to universities. Some may prefer written examinations, other interviews.
Should go up to close channels that offer too few professional opportunities
Education is not just to the issue of employment. It is not for businesses to define pathways of training and diplomas. It is the educational system to do so. We can simply help to better guide students by providing information on the labour market, or even by setting a professional from the company for guidance counsellors. To avoid failure, the issue of orientation is fundamental.
The educational system has harm. But companies do not also Did they not neglected the universities because they enjoy the comfortable pool of schools
You can't say that! At BNP Paribas, we receive 180.000 CV from all walks of life a year, and we look at all. And we have participated in the development of several masters that work very well. I do not think that there is a negative a priori concerning universities or attachment for large schools in business. In addition, for demographic reasons, companies will have enormous needs of young professionals in the next few years and it would be suicidal to deprive himself of the talents of the University. It is true, the binding occurred more easily with schools because they are more open to the world of business. For a company that recruits, the real problem is what is a diploma, it guarantees in terms of content skills, knowledge, behaviour of graduates... However, today, as high school diplomas are relatively homogeneous, as licences or the academic masters are diverse in terms of content.
How further the link between University and employment
The Medef, we are supportive of what part of the University be alternating. The best time to do so would be the last year of studies. This would facilitate the employment of young graduates. The alternationis a true recruitment mechanism.
Are companies really ready to engage heavily
They have the will to move forward. The fate of the University is a key issue for our country.
The French higher education institutions are poorly classified in international competition. What to do
Universities are now in the situation that companies over the past 20 years: there is a global competition to attract the best students and best teachers. They must react promptly because the competitiveness of our country and Europe than in the US and China, tomorrow depends on. The Lisbon target is that the European Union tomorrow is the most powerful knowledge economy. I find that it is a fine objective, very inspiring.
What should reform as a priority within the University
Governance. It is the absolute priority. If that universities can be managed effectively, they must have a strong executive, a competent legislative organ-controlled and limited in number. Once the governance is reformed, will grant more autonomy to institutions and to tackle the issue of funding, which is also crucial.
Is autonomy to generalize to all educational institutions
The experiences that we are in high schools of Ile-de-France with Sciences po show, to succeed on the ground in difficult neighbourhoods, requires a solid experience and a team of volunteers gathered around a strong governance. To deal with complex problems, the high school as in business, it must be a true command. It would be useful that secondary schools and colleges have also a little more autonomy.
The France spends more for high school students than for those of the superior. Should the State grant more resources to the universities
It must continue to play a central role, but should more conditioning its actual results for employability and research funding. This assumes that an independent evaluation device is put in place and working. But universities must open to external financing and in particular to the business. The recent law on foundations opens new tax opportunities. It mainly to develop the University-business contracts for research and training. Finally, each University should have more freedom to set the registration fee. A charge for it, to implement aid and loans system which will allow all young who has the ability to pursue his graduate studies, regardless of the financial resources of his family, as did Sciences po.
Autonomy, this leads in fact to competition...
In all countries of the world, there are universities in international stature and others who have a more national vocation. This is the case in the United States and China. Why not here Having an international status is not ordained, that conquers a strategy and appropriate policy, groupings, alliances. The initiative will come from universities, not a central body. It must give them the means.
A reconciliation between the universities and schools it seems you desirable and possible
Everything is possible, because the players realize that virtually none of them does meet the conditions to be the best level internationally. It takes both interdisciplinarity in the research capacity of foreigners... Reconciliations will be gradually. Perhaps first between schools, which have more room for manoeuvre. One of the issues of each operator will be to create a dynamic.
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It is a good idea. I believe in the initiatives of land rather than projects imposed from theoretical visions or intellectual level of the departments.
Are you optimistic about the ability of the system to evolve
Do not underestimate the magnitude of the problem posed to our education system education for all up to 18 years: what is called the advent of education. The system is not motionless, it moves. It is now encountering serious problems, but the awareness is more and more widely shared. Commission Thélot has done an outstanding job on the school, the Hetzel commission provided avenues of reform on the University. It must exploit their work. The reform will be probably easier in higher education in high school, where the problems to treat are more complex. But officials have a roughly homogeneous vision of what it should be. Our employees know they're there to serve, to implement the policies of the Government, because it has democratic legitimacy. In the aftermath of the elections, officials will be able to reform if, during the campaign, they announce it to the French. I am optimistic: our country has the capacity to defend a model that both ensures equality of opportunity and excellence. But the clock is ticking.
You have considerable emphasis on excellence, but with regard to equality of opportunities, how to achieve it Practicing positive discrimination
I will not use a term that gives rise to the controversy. We so carefully avoided at the Institute of political studies in Paris to be judged solely on the results. My business experience leads me to think that there is in society, different talents that can be discerned with different selection methods. It was in the traditions of Sciences po, and it is in this spirit that has opened a new type of selection at the level of the tray based on a contract with some high schools in priority education areas. The results are satisfactory. To succeed, a country needs to gather all his talents. We need youth in sensitive urban areas, the same effort that was once the Republic to allow children born in rural areas access to higher education and the best career when they had the talent and made the necessary efforts. Anything that can contribute to it goes in the right direction.